In the basement of Mark’s home in Big Rock, Illinois, 50 miles west of the city, they display more than 7,200 beer cans—about 300 of which were made in Chicago breweries. [168] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine. The earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000-year-old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. [50] The mashing process takes around 1 to 2 hours,[51] during which the starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains. The first Gordon Biersch Brewery Restaurant was opened in Palo Alto, California on July 6, 1988. Favorite Add to 1982 "Chicagoland, You've Got Style" Heileman Old Style Cermic Stein XtraThings. [44], As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. Ltd. Sixpack, Joe (pseudonym for Don Russell). Beer is considered to be a social lubricant in many societies[184][185] and is consumed in countries all over the world. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. [63] Due to the mineral properties of each region's water, specific areas were originally the sole producers of certain types of beer, each identifiable by regional characteristics. "CAMRA & The First International Gluten Free Beer Festival", "La Brasserie Lancelot est située au coeur de la Bretagne, dans des bâtiments rénovés de l'ancienne mine d'Or du Roc St-André, construits au 19 ème siècle sur des vestiges néolithiques", "A better control of beer properties by predicting acidity of hop iso-α-acids", Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter — A pint of cloudy, please", "Who exported Beer in 2017? WBEZ found that the brewery sponsored White Sox, Bears, and Blackhawks games, as well as gave away a number of promotional items like posters, bottle openers, and steins. Compared with the taste of the sports drink, the taste of beer significantly increased the participants desire to drink. Draught (also spelled "draft") beer from a pressurised keg using a lever-style dispenser and a spout is the most common method of dispensing in bars around the world. [168][173] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. [88], As of 2020[update], according to the market research firm Technavio, AB InBev remains the largest brewing company in the world, with Heineken second, CR Snow third, Carlsberg fourth, and Molson Coors fifth. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. Day and night make merry") to Gilgamesh, recorded in the Epic of Gilgamesh, by the ale-wife Siduri may, at least in part, have referred to the consumption of beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; the bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the beer and the timespan over which the consumption has taken place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has taken other prescription, over-the-counter or street drugs, among other factors. 3204 N Elizabeth St Pueblo, CO . [115] The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale lager, as are the American brands Budweiser, Coors, and Miller. Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. But once the brewery was sold in 1972 the recipe for Meister Bräu was sold with it, and after some tinkering became the Miller Lite we know today. Many are of the “pilsner” type. Unfortunately, not every building was preserved, including the facility that once house Peter Hand Brewery which brewed Meister Bräu. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. [163], Beer is consumed out of a variety of vessels, such as a glass, a beer stein, a mug, a pewter tankard, a beer bottle or a can; or at music festivals and some bars and nightclubs, from a plastic cup. But we can still get a sense of what they tasted like, if not a literal one. [6] Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Mild ale has a predominantly malty palate. Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. English writer Michael Jackson, in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer, categorised beers from around the world in local style groups suggested by local customs and names. See what's currently available on Old Chicago - Arapahoe Crossing's beer menu in Aurora, CO in real-time. Chicago may not have the reputation as a beer hub in the way Milwaukee does — none of our sports teams are named the Brewers, after all. Some have roasted unmalted barley. [18][19] It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back even further—to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Cask Marque, a non-profit UK beer organisation, has set a temperature standard range of 12°–14 °C (53°–57 °F) for cask ales to be served. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity. 6676 S Parker Rd Aurora, CO . [65], The starch source, termed as the "mash ingredients", in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer. Manhattan later changed its name to the Canadian Ace Brewing Company and operated as such through the 1950s and 1960s until closing in 1968. This process makes the beer appear bright and clean, rather than the cloudy appearance of ethnic and older styles of beer such as wheat beers. [66] Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. It is one of the world's major beer styles. [84] If a beer is marked "suitable for vegans", it was clarified either with seaweed or with artificial agents. See what's currently available on Old Chicago - Fayetteville's beer menu in Fayetteville, NC in real-time. Old Style, you may know, is “Chicago’s beer.” It even goes so far as to brand itself as such. The Pabst Brewing Company was originally the Best Company — the same Best Company with the preserved building in Lakeview. Chicago neighborhood craft beer itineraries Downtown and South Loop Motor Row Brewing. The beer caught on more in Chicago than anywhere else, and by 1935 the company uprooted from Wisconsin and moved to Chicago. Test results indicated that the flavour of the beer triggered a dopamine release, even though alcohol content in the spray was insufficient for the purpose of becoming intoxicated. ", "Draught Beats Bottled in Life Cycle Analysis", "European Beer Statistics—beer sales by package type", "Pack Web Asia – Full aperture end technology makes drinking easy", "Holsten-Brauerei Pet Line for Bottled Beer, Brunswick, Germany", "How Miller Brands partners with licensees to drive sales", "Do "Moderate" Drinkers Have Reduced Mortality Risk? The first brewery to make a real impact on Chicago was the one founded by William Haas and Conrad Sulzer. The traditional process for wort separation is lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. [91][92] The Benedictine Weihenstephan brewery in Bavaria, Germany, can trace its roots to the year 768, as a document from that year refers to a hop garden in the area paying a tithe to the monastery. Old Chicago Beer Can with a Hazelnut Coffee soy candle- FREE SHIPPING! [5] Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. Zodiac Malt Liquor Beer S/S 12 ounce Can Peter Hand Chicago 60622 Illinois 365. Pale ale is a beer which uses a top-fermenting yeast[101] and predominantly pale malt. [96] Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work in The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989. Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. [174], It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer consumption. The first historical mention of the use of hops in beer was from 822 AD in monastery rules written by Adalhard the Elder, also known as Adalard of Corbie,[43][70] though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is the thirteenth century. But Chicago has played and continues to play an important role in American beer culture. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Some brewers have produced gluten-free beer, made with sorghum with no barley malt, for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye.[68]. As German hopped ale became fashionable in England in the late Middle Ages, the English word beer took on the German meaning, and thus in English too beer came during the early modern period to denote hopped, malt-based alcoholic drinks. Whether or not you prefer the taste of Pabst to craft beer, it’s still important to appreciate local beer’s roots. [60] Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, and potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others. The pouring process has an influence on a beer's presentation. Chicago area beer enthusiasts and friends: Here's a place for our beer recommendations, travel tips and recs, and anything else beer-related that we want to share! Chicago, Architecture, Journalism, History, Chicago, New York, Magazine, Literature, Publishing, Satire, Officially the Greatest Drinking City in America, uprooted from Wisconsin and moved to Chicago. OLD CHICAGO BEER COMPANY is located in Mundelein, Illinois and will operate purely as a contract brewer. [111] The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. [24], Some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer; examples include a prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi",[25] which served as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people, and the ancient advice ("Fill your belly. Alkaline hydrolysis experiments show that most of the phenolic acids are present as bound forms and only a small portion can be detected as free compounds. From our food and drink menus, to our energetic staff and friendly … [195] Kyrgyzstan also has a beer made from millet; it is a low alcohol, somewhat porridge-like drink called "Bozo". Peter Hand Brewery (later known as Meister Brau Brewery), Chicago, the original makers … Check with your neighborhood Old Chicago to see what events are coming up next. Old Chicago was a combination shopping mall and indoor amusement park that existed in the southwest Chicago suburb of Bolingbrook, Illinois from 1975 until 1980. These brewers noticed that the beers continued to ferment, and to also clear of sediment, when stored in cool conditions. [132][133] It was preceded by The End of History, a 55% Belgian ale,[119] made by BrewDog in 2010. See activity, upcoming events, photos and more The long-term health effects of continuous, moderate or heavy alcohol consumption include the risk of developing alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease. [121] The customary strength of British ales is quite low, with many session beers being around 4% abv. [156], The temperature of a beer has an influence on a drinker's experience; warmer temperatures reveal the range of flavours in a beer but cooler temperatures are more refreshing. With improved modern yeast strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of cold storage, typically 1–3 weeks. [169] It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Beer is one of the oldest[1][2][3] and most widely consumed[4] alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. In Old Chicago is a 1938 American drama disaster film directed by Henry King.The screenplay by Sonya Levien and Lamar Trotti was based on the Niven Busch story, "We the O'Learys". [71] Some beers today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish Heather Ales company[72] and Cervoise Lancelot by the French Brasserie-Lancelot company,[73] use plants other than hops for flavouring. This is because its fibrous hull remains attached to the grain during threshing. Most beers are cleared of yeast by filtering when packaged in bottles and cans. It is applied to bottle conditioned and cask conditioned beers. Singapore: Höfer Press Pte. [89], A microbrewery, or craft brewery, produces a limited amount of beer. But Old Style isn’t really “Chicago’s beer.” The Old Style brand comes from La Crosse, Wisconsin, where it was first brewed in 1902. Hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms and aids in "head retention",[74][75] the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The Manhattan Brewing Company was a brewery founded in Chicago, United States in 1893 which had associations with Al Capone and organized crime during and after prohibition. [202] Hop also contains myrcene, humulene, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, myrcenol, linalool, tannins, and resin. [196] Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim also use millet in Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern Himalayas. The Andes in South America has Chicha, made from germinated maize (corn); while the indigenous peoples in Brazil have Cauim, a traditional drink made since pre-Columbian times by chewing manioc so that an enzyme (amylase) present in human saliva can break down the starch into fermentable sugars;[198] this is similar to Masato in Peru. A BAC from 0.35% to 0.80% causes a coma (unconsciousness), life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. In traditional pubs, the pull levers for major beer brands may include the beer's logo and trademark. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used. It was later purchased by none other than the Miller Brewing Company of Milwaukee. The 49 men in the study were subject to positron emission tomography scans, while a computer-controlled device sprayed minute amounts of beer, water and a sports drink onto their tongues. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. The perceived bitterness is measured by the International Bitterness Units scale (IBU), defined in co-operation between the American Society of Brewing Chemists and the European Brewery Convention. Pale lager and pale ale are terms used for beers made from malt dried with the fuel coke. Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer. [164] Breweries offer branded glassware intended only for their own beers as a marketing promotion, as this increases sales of their product.[165]. Hartman, L. F. and Oppenheim, A. L., (1950) On Beer and Brewing Techniques in Ancient Mesopotamia. For other uses, see, Alcoholic drink made from fermented cereal grains. In Africa, there are various ethnic beers made from sorghum or millet, such as Oshikundu[194] in Namibia and Tella in Ethiopia. [90] A brewpub is a type of microbrewery that incorporates a pub or other drinking establishment. In 2007, SABMiller surpassed InBev and Anheuser-Bush when it acquired Royal Grolsch, brewer of Dutch premium beer brand Grolsch in 2007. [131], The product claimed to be the strongest beer made is Schorschbräu's 2011 Schorschbock 57 with 57,5%. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above.[11]. And in fact, PBR and Old Style both have their origins in Chicago. [168] Some of these studies combined former ethanol drinkers and lifelong abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, which hides the health benefits of lifelong abstention from ethanol. [200], Beer contains the phenolic acids 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma. Following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, most of the indigenous people were forcibly removed, and the land was then settled in the 1850s by German-Catholic immigrants. In 1965 (or 1967, according to one source) the company was purchased by a group of investors intent on making Meister Bräu a national brand. Since 1976, we’ve been committed to innovation and excellence in craft beer, pairing those picks with delicious dishes, and delivering to our guests genuine Chicago-style goodness. Typically, when a cask arrives in a pub, it is placed horizontally on a frame called a "stillage" which is designed to hold it steady and at the right angle, and then allowed to cool to cellar temperature (typically between 11–13 °C or 52–55 °F),[145] before being tapped and vented—a tap is driven through a (usually rubber) bung at the bottom of one end, and a hard spile or other implement is used to open a hole in the side of the cask, which is now uppermost. [93], While there are many types of beer brewed, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. Tryptophol, tyrosol, and phenylethanol are aromatic higher alcohols found in beer[204] as secondary products of alcoholic fermentation[205] (products also known as congeners) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home. The process of making beer is known as brewing. Webb, Tim; Pollard, Chris; and Pattyn, Joris; Learn how and when to remove this template message, Short-term effects of alcohol consumption, List of countries by beer consumption per capita, "How Beer Is Carbonated and Why Is Beer Fizzy? There is some dispute as to when Chicago gained its first brewery; was it in 1833, the same year the city was incorporated, or was the first commercial beer production seen closer to 1835? Many beers are sold in cans, though there is considerable variation in the proportion between different countries. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter; but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast is added. There are breweries in Middle Eastern countries such as Syria, and in some African countries. [152] It is usually recommended that the beer be poured slowly, leaving any yeast sediment at the bottom of the bottle. This process is known as second (and third) runnings. [105] The flavour of wheat beers varies considerably, depending upon the specific style. Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. [17] The earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran. The site of the former brewery is now the strip mall at the intersection of Sheffield and North Avenue. The act of stillaging and then venting a beer in this manner typically disturbs all the sediment, so it must be left for a suitable period to "drop" (clear) again, as well as to fully condition—this period can take anywhere from several hours to several days. [120] The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4–6%, with a typical abv of 5%. [98], After the introduction of hops into England from Flanders in the 15th century, "ale" referred to an unhopped fermented drink, "beer" being used to describe a brew with an infusion of hops.[99]. However, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by Australia in 1972 and the US in 1978,[48] though individual states were allowed to pass their own laws limiting production,[49] allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby. ", "The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. Typically, when serving a hefeweizen wheat beer, 90% of the contents are poured, and the remainder is swirled to suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass. Meister Brau beer has had a long journey since it was first brewed by Prussian immigrant Peter Hand on Chicago's North Avenue in the 1890s. RocketRelics. [33][34][35][36], Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC,[37] and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. ", "Don't worry, be hoppy: The Weekender's Guide to Beer", "International Beer Day: 10 things you never knew about beer", "Beer on the brain: how taste alone can drive men to drink", "Fred Eckhardt 's Beer-and-Cheese Tasting", "Forget wine and cheese parties – the true soul mate for fromage isn't made from grape juice", "EthnoMed: Traditional Foods of the Central Ethiopian Highlands", "Research & Culture, Kathmandu rich in Culture, Machchhendranath Temple, Akash Bhairav Temple, Hanumandhoka Durbar Square, Temple of Kumari Ghar, Jaishi Dewal, Martyr's Memorial (Sahid) Gate, Singha Durbar", Archeological Parameters For the Origins of Beer, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beer&oldid=990952859, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing additional references from January 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 13:21. ... Old Chicago - Arapahoe Crossing American Restaurant, Pizza Place, Beer Bar. [57] When the beer has fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask ale or kegs, aluminium cans, or bottles for other sorts of beer.[58]. The recipes for beers like Pabst Blue Ribbon and Miller Lite, for example, haven’t changed much over the course of their production. The Old Chicago Kids Eat Free has several kids’ favourite items like pizza with pow, arch-rival alfredo, and a mighty cheeseburger with prizes ranging between – $0.99 to $4.99. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Cask-conditioned ales (or cask ales) are unfiltered and unpasteurised beers. The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. Opened in 1903, the brewery was located between 26th and 27th Streets west of Whipple. "Questions about the science of beer", by Matt Shipman. A BAC of 0.09% to 0.25% causes lethargy, sedation, balance problems and blurred vision. Beer is measured and assessed by bitterness, by strength and by colour. [87] In 2008, when InBev (the second-largest) bought Anheuser-Busch (the third largest), the new Anheuser-Busch InBev company became again the largest brewer in the world. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. But the brand never took off outside Chicago and by 1972 the brewery was faced with serious financial issues. If you feel that a template belongs on this page, do not hesitate to add it. ", "Archeologists Link Rise of Civilization and Beer's Invention", "The world's oldest paycheck was cashed in beer", "Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China", "Li Wine: The Beer of Ancient China -China Beer Festivals 2009", "Armenia Might Be One of the Oldest and Youngest Beer-Making Countries in the World", 492 Years of Good Beer: Germans Toast the Anniversary of Their Beer Purity Law, "Joseph Schlitz Brewing Co.: A Chronological History", "Industry Browser — Consumer Non-Cyclical — Beverages (Alcoholic) – Company List", "Analysis: Premium Chinese beer a bitter brew for foreign brands", "Decreases in global beer supply due to extreme drought and heat", "Breaking the Home Brewing Law in Alabama", Master Brewers Association of the Americas. Meister Bräu was the Chicago brand — think a local version of Hamm’s, Schlitz, or Old Style. [170][171] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. There are many templates in use in Chicago Beer Wiki; these are only a subset, representing some of the most important and commonly used ones. [182] Drinking games, such as beer pong, are also popular. Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing. At Old Chicago, mid-week is the perfect time to start or continue exploring with a new beer from our global tour. In many societies, beer is the most popular alcoholic drink. The name "porter" was first used in 1721 to describe a dark brown beer popular with the street and river porters of London. [175] Several diet books quote beer as having an undesirably high glycemic index of 110, the same as maltose; however, the maltose in beer undergoes metabolism by yeast during fermentation so that beer consists mostly of water, hop oils and only trace amounts of sugars, including maltose. The grains are now washed in a process known as "sparging". [162] Beer served unchilled—either cool or at room temperature—reveal more of their flavours. Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley, and typically brewed with slow fermenting yeast. The strongest beer brewed in Britain was Baz's Super Brew by Parish Brewery, a 23% abv beer. [199], Some beers which are made from bread, which is linked to the earliest forms of beer, are Sahti in Finland, Kvass in Russia and Ukraine, and Bouza in Sudan. [28][29] During the Vedic period in Ancient India, there are records of consumption of the beer-like sura. ", "Live Science.com – When Was Beer Invented? The first Rock Bottom restaurant opened in Denver, Colorado in 1991. [32], Almost any substance containing sugar can naturally undergo alcoholic fermentation, and can thus be utilized in the brewing of beer. The rate of flow from the tap or other serving vessel, tilt of the glass, and position of the pour (in the centre or down the side) into the glass all influence the end result, such as the size and longevity of the head, lacing (the pattern left by the head as it moves down the glass as the beer is drunk), and the release of carbonation. Darker malts will produce darker beers. The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort into the alcoholic drink known as beer in a fermentation process effected by yeast. [197] Further east in China are found Huangjiu and Choujiu—traditional rice-based drinks related to beer. The alcohol 2M2B is a component of hops brewing.[203]. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation. Alcoholism, also known as "alcohol use disorder", is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. In 1993, Big River Breweries opened its first location in … Only later did it move to Wisconsin and base its production there. Beer contains ethanol, an alcohol, which has short and long-term effects on the user when consumed. These beers are termed "real ale" by the CAMRA organisation. But Old Style isn’t really “Chicago’s beer.” The Old Style brand comes from La Crosse, Wisconsin, where it was first brewed in 1902. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast cultures. The highest density of breweries in the world, most of them microbreweries, exists in the German Region of Franconia, especially in the district of Upper Franconia, which has about 200 breweries. Some types of beer can also be found in smaller, disposable kegs called beer balls. [7], Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Real ale is the term coined by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973[100] for "beer brewed from traditional ingredients, matured by secondary fermentation in the container from which it is dispensed, and served without the use of extraneous carbon dioxide". [78] The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are the top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus. [64] Regional geology accords that Dublin's hard water is well-suited to making stout, such as Guinness, while the Plzeň Region's soft water is ideal for brewing Pilsner (pale lager), such as Pilsner Urquell.

old chicago beer wikipedia

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